Porcelain

Porcelain is a type of pottery made by firing the clay mineral kaolin and other raw materials at very high temperatures in a kiln. Porcelain is often considered the finest type of pottery, on account of its bright white colour, delicacy and strength. Porcelain can be easily modelled and combines well with both glazes and paint, meaning that a huge range of decorative treatments are available for porcelain creations, such as vases, tableware and figurines

The ceramic material porcelain can be broadly divided into two different types: hard-paste and soft-paste porcelain. The difference between these depends on both the firing conditions and the composition of the paste that is used to make the porcelain.

Hard-paste porcelains originated in east Asia, which was responsible for some of the finest hard-paste porcelain wares available. Porcelain was initially developed in China, around the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD.

The production of porcelain took a long time to develop, and it was not until the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) that China began to produce truly impressive, high quality porcelain wares. It was during this time that the manufacture of porcelain became thoroughly organised, meaning that one kiln site could fire as many as 25,000 wares.

Despite the progress made during the rule of the Song Dynastry, it is the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD) that is truly associated with antique Chinese porcelain. During this time, porcelain began to be exported to Europe, and some of the best know Chinese porcelain decorative styles became know, such as the blue-and-white wares. Porcelain wares produced during the Ming Dynasty remain exceptionally highly prized today, and such works sell for staggeringly high figures at auction.

In 15th Century Europe, Chinese imported porcelain was regarded so highly that the term 'china' became synonymous with any porcelain ware, and remains in use today. Astonishingly, given the widespread use and immediate popularity of Chinese ceramics, porcelain production did not begin in Europe until the 16th Century. When it did begin, the techniques and materials used to create Chinese porcelain were not yet understood, and so second rate, soft-paste creations were made. 

16th Century soft-paste porcelains represent the earliest attempts by European craftsmen to replicate Chinese hard-paste porcelain wares. These tenacious European potters used mixtures of clay, frit, soapstone and lime to make the soft-paste creations. However, these first soft-paste wares were of low quality, uneconomic and often problematic to produce, with many works losing their shape when fired. Technically and aesthetically superior soft-paste porcelains were soon created using a range of alternative materials; these type of soft-paste porcelain wares continue to be produced today.

Europe did not start producing hard-paste porcelain wares until the early 18th Century. These were formed of a paste comprising alabaster and kaolin, and produced porcelain items of a great strength, hardness and translucency when fired. It was Meissen, the famous German porcelain manufacturer, who was responsible for producing these very first hard-paste porcelain wares in Europe, which quickly became hugely popular among wealthy European royalty and nobility. The French firm of Sèvres, which was founded slightly later than its German counterpart, soon began to create fine hard-paste porcelain items too. Once porcelain production had become established as a European craft, it flourished, and the output of renowned makers reached unsurpassed levels of quality and beauty.

Today, fine antique European and Asian porcelain remains as highly prized as ever, with examples held in prestigious museums and galleries across the world.

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Style
  1. Figurative Art 68
  2. Rococo 66
  3. Sèvres 66
  4. Floral 55
  5. Neoclassical 52
  6. Chinese Interest 25
  7. Louis XVI 23
  8. Louis XV 22
  9. Meissen 18
  10. Classical 15
  11. Renaissance 14
  12. Mythological 13
  13. Empire 12
  14. Chinoiserie 12
  15. Old Master 11
  16. Fête Galante 11
  17. Orientalist 11
  18. Belle Époque 11
  19. Birds / Ornithology 10
  20. Religious 10
  21. Genre 9
  22. Animal / Animalier 9
  23. Portrait 8
  24. Russian Interest 8
  25. Napoleon III 7
  26. Biblical 7
  27. Academic 6
  28. Victorian 6
  29. Landscape 6
  30. Royal / Monarchy 6
  31. Christian 6
  32. Romantic 6
  33. Islamic 5
  34. Japonisme 5
  35. Urban Views / Townscapes 5
  36. History Painting 4
  37. Baroque 4
  38. Militaria / Military 4
  39. Marine / Seascape 4
  40. Japanese Interest 4
  41. Persian interest 3
  42. Napoleonic 3
  43. Gothic 3
  44. Restauration 3
  45. Shakespeare, Theatre & Literature 2
  46. 20th and 21st Century Design 2
  47. Music / Musical 2
  48. Meiji 2
  49. Hunting 2
  50. Equestrian / Horses 2
  51. Ottoman 1
  52. Moorish 1
  53. Abstract 1
  54. Jewish 1
  55. Contemporary 1
  56. Satsuma 1
  57. Capodimonte 1
  58. Battle / War 1
  59. Arabesque 1
  60. American Interest 1
  61. Neo-Grec 1
  62. Neo-Gothic 1
Material
  1. Porcelain 286
  2. Ormolu (Gilt Bronze) 129
  3. Gilt 43
  4. Giltwood 28
  5. Wood 8
  6. Velvet 6
  7. Marble 6
  8. Ebonised Wood 5
  9. Bronze 4
  10. Onyx 4
  11. Kingwood 4
  12. Brass 4
  13. Enamel - Champlevé 4
  14. Parquetry 4
  15. Silver 3
  16. Enamel 3
  17. Mahogany 3
  18. Glass 2
  19. Cut Glass 2
  20. Marquetry 2
  21. Metal 2
  22. Satinwood 2
  23. Rosewood 2
  24. Silvered Metal 1
  25. Silk 1
  26. Turquoise 1
  27. Semi-precious stones 1
  28. Tulipwood 1
  29. Mirror 1
  30. Precious Stones 1
  31. Cast Iron 1
  32. Oak 1
  33. Bisque (biscuit) porcelain 1
  34. Lapis Lazuli 1
  35. Iron 1
  36. Hardwood 1
  37. Crystal 1
  38. Gilt Metal 1
  39. Gilt Brass 1
  40. Amboyna 1
Colour
  1. Multi-coloured 219
  2. Gold 209
  3. White 93
  4. Blue 93
  5. Green 49
  6. Brown 33
  7. Red 33
  8. Pink 27
  9. Cream 20
  10. Turquoise 12
  11. Black 10
  12. Yellow 7
  13. Orange 6
  14. Purple 6
  15. Silver 4
  16. Grey 4
  17. Metallic 2
  18. Clear 1
Country Of Origin
  1. French 142
  2. German 65
  3. Chinese 22
  4. English 18
  5. Continental 16
  6. Russian 15
  7. Austrian 13
  8. Italian 4
  9. Japanese 4
  10. Bohemian 2
  11. Asian 2
  12. American 1
  13. Swiss 1
  14. Danish 1
  15. Czech 1
  16. British 1
  17. Belgian 1
  18. Turkish 1
Period
  1. Late 19th Century 130
  2. 19th Century 86
  3. Early 20th Century 32
  4. Early 19th Century 19
  5. 20th Century 12
  6. 18th Century and Earlier 6
  7. 21st Century 1
Artist / Maker
  1. Sèvres 50
  2. Meissen Porcelain Manufactory 28
  3. KPM, Konigliche Porzellan-Manufaktur 27
  4. Royal Vienna Porcelain Manufactory 10
  5. Picard, Henri 6
  6. Samson et Cie 4
  7. Ross, Donald 4
  8. Dresden Porcelain Manufactory 4
  9. Barbedienne, Ferdinand 3
  10. Petit, Jacob 3
  11. Royal Worcester 3
  12. Sévin, Louis-Constant 3
  13. Raingo Frères 2
  14. Raphael 2
  15. Royal Dux 2
  16. Royer, Ernest 2
  17. Imperial Porcelain Factory 2
  18. Popov Manufactory 2
  19. Feuillet, Jean-Pierre 2
  20. Edwards & Roberts 2
  21. Dagoty and Honore 2
  22. Silvani 1
  23. Sitzendorf 1
  24. Skerrett, James 1
  25. Royal Copenhagen 1
  26. Royal Bonn 1
  27. Tahan 1
  28. Tétard Frères 1
  29. Vezzini and Chen 1
  30. A. M. E. Fournier 1
  31. Nast Porcelain Manufactory 1
  32. Planchon, Mathieu 1
  33. Hutcheson, Jane 1
  34. Besche 1
  35. Charles Oudin 1
  36. Copeland 1
  37. Dihl et Guérhard 1
  38. Dursley 1
  39. Gardner Porcelain Factory, 1
  40. Grade, Louis 1
  41. Julius Greiner & Sohn 1
  42. Pauly & Co. 1
  43. Kornilov Brothers 1
  44. Kreisser, Edouard 1
  45. Landry, Eugêne-Auguste 1
  46. Le Roy et fils 1
  47. Minton 1
  48. Miroy Frères, Paris 1
  49. Alex'r M. Hays 1
  50. P.A.L.T, Porzellanfabrik Adolf Laufer 1
  51. Wahliss, Ernest 1

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